Some findings Both men and 캠장 women begin with similar goals that are adjusted as they go along–but men are more likely to reach similar goals. Among college graduates employed full-time, men are more likely to have direct reports, have responsibility for profits and losses, and to hold top managerial positions. Among those who are employed full-time at Harvard Business School, men are substantially more likely than women to have direct reports, to have profit-and-loss responsibility, and to be in senior management positions.
Blau and Kahn further show how similar policies in other OECD countries have also increased the number of part-time jobs created (as well as womens employment overall), mostly at lower-level positions, while U.S. women are more likely to hold full-time jobs and to be managers or professionals. The results suggest that part-time work can strengthen womens employment in continental Europe, and particularly Southern Europe, where rising part-time work–even when it is demand-side-driven–has led to greater participation in the labor force by women. Part-time employment has been proposed as a solution for womens labour market integration on numerous occasions; however, the empirical evidence supporting the causal relationship is mixed. Bivariate associations between part-time work (PTW) and female employment rates seem to support claims that increased access to PTW may also boost womens employment in countries with infamously low female LMP participation rates (OECD, 2013; Tevenon, 2013).
Time spent outside of the labor force may explain why women are less likely to hold high-level positions. Nor does it appear that efforts made by women (or men) to adjust for personal and family obligations, for example, working less than full-time or making later-career moves, account for the reason women are less likely to hold top managerial positions. The answer does not appear to be that women simply left the labor force, since few are taking on childcare responsibilities full-time.
At the same time, roughly half the women expected that they would be taking over most childcare. We also wanted to think about how taking time off for childcare could impact the trajectory of a womans career.
Segregation in female occupations contributes significantly to earnings gaps for part-time and full-time female employees, but it does not do so for full-time workers. The male-multiple-female cluster can take different forms when predator pressure is an issue.
It is wrong to automatically assume that nonhuman primates have male-dominated, one-male-several-female groups. That is, one male mates and lives with more than one female regularly. Mates give a social organization the appearance, on its surface, of being one-male-several-female groups. Rather, a man and his female partner make up an identifiable mating group and rearing of children.
Our results indicate that female-female competition for food within larger groups had little impact on female-horn evolution. Interestingly, in species with territoriality among females, only some populations show horns in females, and those populations that show horns generally show higher levels of territoriality among females (e.g. Furthermore, we suggest that female horns may be preferred in certain species because of intrasexual battles between females for territory (Clutton-Brock 2009). We also found that territory had a significant impact on the presence of horns in females (t=2.930, n=116, P=0.004, R=0.266), whereby horns were present in females actively marking or defending territories.
First, we pitted shoulder height, body mass, habitat opening, female territoriality, and group size against one another in order to test shoulder heights relative ability to explain horns in females. Part of Roberts (1996) hypothesis about female competition suggests that females who compete for access to territories against conspecifics of their own gender will be better off from having horns than females who are not territorial; however, Roberts (1996) did not test this aspect of the hypothesis.
Before the Civil War, women were allowed to vote a restricted number of states. New Jersey allowed women to vote until its state constitution banned it in 1844. Wyoming passed its first womens suffrage legislation on Dec. 10, 1869, and women voted for the first time in 1870. The first womens suffrage laws gave women not only the right to vote, but also to serve on juries and to run for political office.
In 1890, Wyoming became the 44th state, and the first to grant women full voting rights. When the Wyoming Territory applied for statehood two decades after adoption, Territory citizens approved a Constitution retaining womens voting rights. However, womens suffrage was still virtually absent when, in 1869, Wyoming Territory President William Bright, a saloonkeeper, introduced a bill granting the vote to all women residents age 21 or older.
Although at the time, the U.S. did not give women the vote, individual states were still free to adopt laws granting women suffrage. Women in the U.S. had been fighting for the right to vote since Andrew Jacksons presidency in the 1820s. Even after the adoption of the 19th amendment, Wyoming continued to lead the way for women in politics, with Nelly Tayloe Ross elected as the nations first woman governor in 1924. Congress gave up, and the Wyoming Territory became the first state to give women the right to vote when it became the nations 44th state in 1890.
The West continues to be the most progressive area of the U.S. for the full right of womens suffrage. Republican governors vetoed repeals, and womens suffrage was left intact. When Mike Cook called in a task force to examine the numbers behind them, he learned that over 70% of women who had left Deloitte & Touche were still employed full-time one year later.
Our primary explanatory variable (%PTW jt) is the proportion of women employed full-time as a share of the total number of women employed in a dependent occupation at the age range of 15-64, measured regionally in each year.8 This PTW measure accounts for regionally-specific shares in part-time positions.